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Laser cutting is one of several processes, with the others being marking, welding, drilling, engraving, ablation, additive manufacturing and cleaning. The cutting process has some similarities and overlaps to the drilling and engraving processes and is the process of cutting a material.
Cutting can be done for several reasons, whether to make a product, part or material smaller or give it a smooth finish or to cut it into a complicated shape. Cutting with lasers has been steadily replacing more conventional forms of cutting over the years thanks to its ability to cut in ways that other machines simply can’t.
To help explain the process in more detail, we’ve answered some of the most frequently asked questions below.
Laser cutting is also perfect for working with a huge variety of metals too
Laser cutting works by having a high-powered, highly-focused laser beam run through a material, leaving a clean cut with a smooth finish. This beam can be either pulsed, meaning the cut is delivered in pulses, or continuous wave, meaning the beam is kept focused on the material until the cut is delivered.
Cutting with lasers starts by piercing the material with a hole, and then continues the cut from there. The beam intensity, length and heat output can be controlled, allowing the cut to be delivered in different ways and in different times.
The process is, in some ways, similar to drilling and engraving. Drilling involves the creation of popped ‘thru-holes’ in materials, but occasionally these holes are created as dents rather than thru-holes. These dents, acting like engravings, are also considered ‘cuts’ in a material.
The diagram above is an example of how laser cutting works, although there are different processes which work in different ways
Thanks to the control of beam intensity, length and heat output as described above, lasers are great at cutting many materials. Listed below are just some of the materials that cut well with:
A huge variety of metals, can be cut including:
While metal is the most common material that is cut with lasers (e.g. hydro formed parts) it is used with many other materials too, as listed above.
Laser cutting can be used to safely cut glass, avoiding unnecessary cracking such as shown in the above!
The control that cutting with lasers provides, as well as the numerous materials that it can successfully work with, means that it unsurprisingly finds use in a host of different industries.
These include the automotive industry, the aerospace industry, the semiconductor industry, the electronics industry and the medical sector.
With all of these industries, production and manufacturing rates have been increasing over the years, while parts and components have become smaller and smaller. Due to this, laser cutting has noticed an increased use throughout many of the manufacturing processes.
There are a huge number of advantages to its users:
With the above advantages, it is easy to see why cutting with lasers is becoming so widely used.
It offers unique benefits over other more conventional forms of cutting. It has a lower power consumption, typically around 10Kw compared to 50Kw of other forms, and it operates at a much quicker and more precise rate.
Also it is safer as the laser beam is enclosed within a tight light box, whereas with other conventional methods typically a free running blade is doing the cutting.
One of the biggest benefits of the cutting process is the accuracy and precision that it provides to its users. With a focused, narrow beam, it can provide an ultimate level of accuracy.
Slits with widths as small as 0.1mm are achievable with laser cutting. You can see more on the process in action with a video from us here; redENERGY G4 Pulsed Fiber Laser Cutting & Marking 0.3mm& 0.9mm.
The process is capable of performing a huge number of tasks. Thanks to the accuracy and speed that it provides, you will see it being used to delivery cuts in materials, make holes, create complicated shapes, and even to perform surgery on human tissue.
No, and this is one of the greatest advantages of all. As it is a non-contact process and uses a beam that is highly precise on the area it is being focused upon, heat damage is minimal to the surrounding area of the material.
Yes, there are several different types and techniques of laser cutting. The three main types are C02, crystal and fiber. Here at SPI we only work with fiber lasers for cutting using our Pulsed Fiber Lasers and Continuous Wave Fiber Lasers.
As you can see from the above, this is one of the most useful laser-based processes to have been developed for modern society today. Although you may not realise it, laser cutting affects us in more ways than you think!
The laser cutting process has many benefits over conventional cutting, namely that it delivers a much cleaner cut and finish
From helping to save lives with laser surgery to building the cars we drive or the smartphones that we use, cutting with lasers has a part to play. It is just one of a number of useful processes our range of Fiber Lasers can complete. If you have more questions that aren’t answered here, we would be happy to help answer it.
Image credit: Unknown, Jilbert Ebrahimi, Arcaion and Unsplash
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